Despite exhibiting different chemical properties, all hallucinogens generally produce similar psychological effects, but mescaline and peyote have some distinctive properties. Shortly after administration, hallucinations occur as classic intensifications of visual stimulation of object shapes and hypersensitivity to touch and sounds with a distorted tone. The prominence of light and color is distinctive and appears bright and intense.
Participants completed an extensive questionnaire about their experience with mescaline. They also completed a mental health assessment, in which they reported symptoms of depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, alcohol abuse or alcohol use disorder, and drug abuse or drug use disorder. Natives who still practice traditional medicine are well aware of the healing benefits of using medicinal plants.
From the cusp areolas a tuft of soft, yellowish or whitish woolly hairs is created. They open during the day, range from 1 to 2.4 cm long and reach a diameter of 1 to 2.2 cm. The cactus produces flowers sporadically; These are followed by small edible pink fruits. The upper part of the above-ground part of the cactus, the crown, consists of disc-shaped buds. These should be cut above the roots, directly below their base, leaving the underground part of the plant along with a ring of green photosynthetic area of the stem to regenerate new crowns/heads. When done correctly, the top of the root forms a callus, and the root does not rot.
Mescaline works in the same way as other psychedelics; it mainly binds to and activates the serotonin 5-HT2c receptor with high affinity. Compared to LSD, the 5-HT2A receptor binding affinities were lower for all tryptamines, including psilocin and DMT, with mescaline being the least potent psychedelic. The researchers also looked at inhibition of serotonin, norepinephrine or dopamine transporters for all substances tested, with the exception of mescaline and LSD. Although only LSD showed affinity for dopaminergic D1-3 receptors, other studies showed that the characteristic behavioral effects of mescaline in cats were almost completely blocked by pretreatment with low doses of serotonin or specific dopamine antagonists. Most peyote poisonings appear to be mild in nature and are unlikely to cause life-threatening symptoms. Thus, it is clear that the distinctive behavioral profile of mescaline suggests a complex mechanism of action that is not yet fully understood.
The renewed interest in the potential therapeutic applications of psychedelic drugs may provide further insights for the development of more powerful analogues. Although its illegal administration is less common, compared to cocaine and cannabis, it has been widely described in adolescents and young adults, and legal use is common in religious and therapeutic rituals practiced by the Native American Church. In addition, as a derivative of phenethylamine, signs and symptoms are consistent with a sympathomimetic effect.
The symptoms of mescaline poisoning are consistent with a sympathomimetic toxiroom, namely hyperreflexia, tachycardia, agitation, muscle stiffness, ataxia, convulsions, mydriasis, sialorrhea, hyperthermia and paresthesia. Methoxy side chains are likely responsible for the hallucinogenic effects of mescaline and are found in similar compounds that are known hallucinogens, including the “designer” street drug 2,5-dimethoxy-4-methylphenylisopropylamine. Nausea, vomiting and anorexia have been inconsistently reported after taking peyote. Although it is not completely rinsed, it is probably due to the very bitter taste of the plant rather than the effects of the active ingredient mescaline. In a study with volunteers receiving synthetic mescaline, vomiting was not observed in any of the participants.
Mescaline itself is just one of the alkaloids present in peyote, but it produces the same effects as the raw preparation. You can also develop a psychological dependence on the drug if you enjoy the effects or the social interactions it can create. The side effects of peyote can cause people to feel like they need the medication to relax, release stress, or experience the same feelings of sociability as when they were taking it. A person should not become addicted to the substance itself, but to the journeys and experiences that peyote creates. Drug use often accelerates the development of tolerance, with the brain becoming insensitive to the effects of the drug. This leads to the fact that the person needs more of the drug to achieve the desired effects.
Dr. John Halpern, a psychiatrist who studied peyote use within the Native American Church, has found that peyote is beneficial in treating alcoholism and drug abuse among American Indians, and unlike other psychedelic drugs, peyote does buy mescaline powder not appear to cause permanent brain damage. Those who used peyote only did so during the ceremony and abstained from alcohol and drug abuse. He also concluded that the environment is also crucial for the effective use of peyote.
There have been some reports of poisonings caused by hallucinogens that require emergency management, including deaths, but the information available on these cases is very limited. Usually, most patients treated in health facilities only need sedation and supportive measures. If a patient arrives in the emergency room with a suspicion of hallucinogenic poisoning, multiple drug tests should be performed to assess the possibility of simultaneous intake of other substances instead of hallucinogens, as they are quickly eliminated from the body.